In the higher grades the student was permitted to use paper. One of the main items of Egyptian trade, and another for the gifts that are permanent the planet is Ancient Egypt writing in writing.
The stem of this papyrus plant was cut into strips, other strips were placed crosswise upon these, the sheet was pressed, and paper, the very stuff (and nonsense) of civilization, was made.
How good they made it may be judged from the known fact that manuscripts published by them five thousand years ago will always be intact and legible.
Sheets were combined into books by gumming the right edge of one sheet into the left edge of the next; in because of this rolls were produced which were sometimes forty yards in total; these were seldom longer, for there were no verbose historians in Egypt.
Ink, black and indestructible, was made by mixing water with soot and vegetable gums on a wooden palette; the pen was a straightforward reed, fashioned at the tip into a tiny brush.
By using these modern instruments the Egyptians wrote the essential ancient of literatures.
Their language had probably are presented in from Asia; the oldest specimens of it show semitic that is many.
The earliest writing was apparently pictographic and object was represented by drawing a picture of it: e.g. the phrase for house (Egyptian per) was indicated by a little rectangle with an opening using one of the long sides.
As a few ideas were too abstract to be literally pictured, pictography passed into ideography: certain pictures were by custom and convention used to represent not the objects pictured but the ideas suggested by them; therefore the forepart of a lion meant supremacy (as in the Sphinx), a wasp meant royalty, and a tadpole stood for thousands.
As a development that is further this line, abstract ideas, which had at first resisted representation, were indicated by picturing objects whose names happened to resemble the spoken words that corresponded into the ideas; therefore the picture of a lute came to mean not only lute, but good, as the Egyptian word-sound for luteвЂ”neferвЂ” resembled the word-sound for goodвЂ”nofer.
Queer rebus combinations grew away from these homonyms words of like sound but meanings that are different.
Because the verb to be was expressed within the spoken language because of the sound khopiru, the scribe, being puzzled to find an image for so intangible a conception, split the term into parts, kho-pi-ru, expressed these by picturing in succession a sieve (called in the spoken language khau), a mat (pi), and a mouth (ru); use and wont, which sanctify so many absurdities, soon made this strange assortment of characters suggest the idea of being.
The Ancient Egypt writting arrived at the syllable, the syllabic sign, and the syllabary i.e., a collection of syllabic signs; and by dividing difficult words into syllables, finding homonyms for these, and drawing in combinaВ¬tion the objects suggested by these syllabic sounds, he was able, in the course of time, to make the hieroglyphic signs convey almost any idea in this way.
Only one step remained to invent letters in ancient Egypt writing.
The sign for a house meant to start with your message for house per; then it meant the sound per, or p-r with any vowel in between, as a syllable in almost any word.
Then your picture was shortened, and used to represent the sound po, pa, pu, pe or pi in any word; and since vowels were never written, it was comparable to having a character for P. By a like development the sign for a hand (Egyptian dot) came to mean do, da, etc., finally D; the sign for mouth (ro or ru) came to mean jR; the sign for snake (zt) became Z; the sign for lake (shy) became Sh. . . .
The effect was an alphabet of twenty-four consonants, which passed with Egyptian and Phoenician trade to all quarters associated with Mediterranean, and came down, via Greece and Rome, as one of the most precious elements of our Oriental heritage.
In Ancient Egypt writing, Hieroglyphics are as old as the earliest dynasties; alphabetic characters appear first in inscriptions left by the Egyptians when you look at the mines for the Sinai’peninsula, variously dated at 2500 and 1500 B.c.
Whether wisely or not, the Ancient Egypt writing never adopted a completely alphabetic writing; like modern stenographers they mingled pictographs, ideographs and syllabic signs using their letters to the very end of these civilization.
This has caused it to be problematic for scholars to read Egyptian, however it is quite conceivable that such a medley of longhand and shorthand facilitated the continuing business of writing for everyone Egyptians who could spare enough time to learn it.
The five hundred hieroglyphs, their secondary syllabic meanings, and their tertiary alphabetic uses since English speech resume writer is no honorable guide to English spelling, it is probably as difficult for a contemporary lad to learn the devious ways of English orthography as it was for the Egyptian scribe to memorize by use.
In the course of time an even more rapid and sketchy type of ancient Egypt writing was developed for manuscripts, as distinguished from the careful “sacred carvings” associated with the monuments.
Because this corruption of hieroglyphic was initially created by the priests as well as the temple scribes, it had been called by the Greeks hieratic; but it soon passed into common use for public, commercial and documents that are private.
A still more abbreviated and form that is careless of script was created because of the common people, and as a consequence came into existence referred to as demotic.
From the monuments, however, the Egyptian insisted on having his lordly and lovely hieroglyphic egypt that is perhaps ancient was the most picturesque as a type of writing ever made.